The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (hereafter Pakistan) is affected by climate change, increasing urbanization, environmental degradation and increasingly severe and larger-scale natural disasters. Pakistan is prone to natural hazards such as drought, floods, heat waves, extreme cold and earthquakes. According to the 2021 Climate Risk Index, Pakistan ranks eighth among the countries most affected by extreme weather events between 2000 and 2019.
Pakistan has experienced a series of dangers in recent years. Drought-like conditions, which began in late 2018 and continued through 2019, affected five million people, including 2.1 million people targeted for humanitarian assistance. This was followed by a winter emergency affecting a million people across much of the west of the country. The worst desert locust infestation in 27 years was declared a national emergency by the government in January 2020.
This was followed by the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which began in February 2020 and has contributed to health and economic shocks, disruption in education and increased insecurity. food. In September 2020, the government declared a national emergency due to heavy monsoon rains that triggered major flooding in Sindh province and affected an estimated 2.4 million people.
The government of Pakistan has a strong disaster management base built around the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMA) and national legislation of 2010. In addition, the government has a well-established national development and disaster risk. reduction frameworks including Pakistan Vision 2025, National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) 2012-2022 and National Flood Protection Plan (IV) (NFPPIV) 2015-2025. Humanitarian partners are also working in different areas to ensure alignment of the response with government activities. The United Nations (UN) and humanitarians work closely with NDMA, PDMA, line ministries and the National Disaster Risk Management Fund (NDRMF) to support these initiatives.
The government of Pakistan, with the support of international and national humanitarian and development partners, has responded to the pandemic by strengthening response coordination, case management, disease surveillance and testing services in laboratories, clinics and clinics. health systems and community mobilization to prepare for the impact of COVID-19. The UN is working with federal and provincial governments at multiple levels to facilitate coordinated management of COVID-19 preparedness and response. Through coordination mechanisms, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) supported the Humanitarian Coordinator and the Humanitarian Country Team in implementing the Global Humanitarian Response Plan, including by supporting the structures of coordination at national and provincial levels through working groups with NDMA / PDMA and relevant ministries and departments.
Several agencies – including the World Bank, the World Food Program (WFP), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations for Food and Agriculture (FAO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), UN Women and others – have coordinated across the country to achieve these goals and ease the burden. For example, UNICEF focused its response on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and its support for capacity building by focusing WASH / infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions in 20 of the 27 heavy load districts. This activity included the drafting of the national COVID-19 WASH / IPC preparedness and response plan. Almost nine million people in the country have benefited from hygiene promotion services, including information on the prevention and control of COVID-19, with nearly five million people using the additional handwashing stations in affected areas.